What are the sinuses? How many do we have?

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A sinus is a hollow, air-filled cavity. For the purposes of this article, a sinus will refer to those hollow cavities that are in the skull and connected to the nasal airway by a narrow hole in the bone (ostium). Normally all sinuses are open to the nasal airway through an ostium. Humans have four pair of these cavities each referred to as the:

  1. Frontal sinus (in forehead),
  2. Maxillary sinus (behind cheeks),
  3. Ethmoid sinuses (between the eyes), and
  4. Sphenoid sinus (deep behind the ethmoids)

The four pair of sinuses are often described as a unit and termed the “paranasal sinuses.” The cells of the inner lining of each sinus are mucus-secreting cells, epithelial cells and some cells that are part of the immune system (macrophages, lymphocytes, and eosinophils).

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What is a sinus infection or sinusitis?

Inflammation of the air cavities within the passages of the nose (paranasal sinuses) is referred to as sinusitis. Sinusitis can be caused by infection (sinus infection), but also can be caused by allergy and chemical irritation of the sinuses. A sinus infection (infectious sinusitis) occurs when a virus, bacterium, or a fungus grows within a sinus.
Sinusitis is one of the more common conditions that can afflict people throughout their lives. Sinusitis commonly occurs when environmental pollens irritate the nasal passages, such as with hay fever. Sinusitis can also result from irritants, such as chemicals or the use and/or abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) nasal sprays, and illegal substances that may be snorted or inhaled through the nose. About 30 million adults have “sinusitis.” Colds differ from sinusitis and are only caused by viruses and last about seven to 10 days while sinusitis may have many different causes (infectious and non-infectious), and usually last longer with more 

MEET DR. IRSHAD MAZHAR MOHIUDDIN – ENT SPECIALIST

MBBS, DNB (ENT), FEB-ORL (Fellow European Board )

Dr Irshad is a renowned ENT Surgeon actively engaged in patient care and research. He has devoted his career to the treatment of ENT diseases with patients who have complex ENT problems for a better outcome and a better quality of life.

After completing his studies from some of the most prestigious institutes in India, he received Fellowship of European Board in Otolaryngology and Head & Neck surgery. Dr Irshad has worked as an ENT surgeon in JCI accredited Hospitals of international repute, giving unremarkable results to his patients.

Dr Irshad has a comprehensive & holistic approach in treating his patients as a whole and not just the disease. He has a strong belief that every patient can treated with a better outcome by practicing evidence based medicine and following international best safe practices.

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Areas of Specialization

  • Diagnosis and management of Pediatric and Adult ENT diseases
  • Endoscopic Sinus and Nasal surgery (septoplasty, turbinate surgery, FESS, etc.)
  • Coblation assisted surgery {tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy (endoscopic and curette), turbinate reduction etc.
  • Snoring and sleep apnea surgery
  • Ear surgery (myringotomy grommets, tympanoplasty, mastoidectomy etc.)